fn!oaO fldäh

j¾I 1885 wfma%,a ui 28 Èk ,la b;sydifha ft;sydisl Èkhla njg m;a ùug tla fya;=jla jQfha f,dal fn!oaO b;sydifha m%:u Iâ j¾Kfhka hq;a fn!oaO fldähla tiùu ksid h' ì%;dkH md,lhskaf.a kdkdúO ;dvkmSvkhkag hg;a j iïnqoaO Ydikh;a" fn!oaO ixialD;sh;a" fn!oaO Ñka;kh;a" iuia; rg;a wkqfõokSh;ajhg m;a jq nj wuq;=fjka meyeÈ,s l< hq;a;la fkdfõ' fujeks ;;ajhkag m;a jQ iEu wjia:djl u NslaIQka jykafia,df.a wjxl mrudo¾YS kdhl;ajh iuia; iudcfha u iuqkak;shg fya;= jQ nj iqm%lg i;Hhhls' ta wkqj n,k úg fn!oaO b;sydifha;a Y%S ,dxflah b;sydifha;a b;d wkqiaurKh wjia:d mßydkSh hq.hka ys § ìysùu úfYaI ,laIKhla jYfhka o fmkajd Èh yels h'


ixfla;d;aul ixksfõokfha udOHla jYfhka ÿrd;S;fha isg u Ndú;d l< ~fldäfha~ mrud¾: w;sYh mq¿,a mrdYhl fhfoa' ta ms<sn| újrKhla imhk isxy, úYaj fldaIfha “ck fldÜGdihla" ixúOdkhla" wd.ula" úfYaI ch.%ykhla fyda fYdald;aul wjia:djla ms<sìUq lsÍug o ftYapharH" fi!Nd.H" wdrlaIdj wysfhda.h" wjk; Ndjh" wysudkh" f.!rjh" mlaImd;S;ajh yd wfmalaId hk úúOd¾: m%ldY lsßu msKsi fldäh fyj;a Och Ndú;d flf” hkqfjka wka;¾.;h' ta wkqj fn!oaO ixialD;sfha wkkH;dj ms<sìUq lrkafka fn!oaO fldähhs'

fn!oaO Och ìys ùug idOl jQ b;sydifha miqìï o fláfhka úuiSu o jeo.;a fõ' ta flfiao h;a" fldgfyafka §mÿ;a;drdu úydria:dkfha fka;% m%;sIaGdmkh lsÍfï msxlula 1883 ud¾;= 25 Èk isÿ lsÍug ixúOdkh lr ;snqKs' mdkÿrdjdoh ch .ekSu;a iu. meje;aùug kshñ;j ;snQ fuu msxlu i|yd fnd/,af,a isg §mÿ;a;druhg fmryerla fudfyÜáj;af;a .=Kdkkao ysñfhda ixúOdkh l<y' fmryer meje;aùu ms<sn| hï hï ÿIudk wdrxÑ me;sr f.dia ;snQ neúka l%sia;shdks fmd,sia ks,OdÍka úiska ta ms<sn| mq¾j mÍlaIKhla isÿ fldg fmryer meje;a ùug wjir fok ,§'

rd;%S 1'30 g muK fnd/,af,ka msg;a jQ fuu fmryer fldgfyakg ,Õd jk úg m,a,sj, iSkq kd; lrkj;a iu.u wú wdhqO /.;a úYd, uer msßia fldgfyafk Ydka; Æishd foõ ueÿr wi,g ,Õd jQy' fmryef¾ .uka .;a ksrdhqO wysxil fndÿ Wjiq Wjeishkag odußlhka úiska myr fok ,§' tu wjia:dfõ § fn!oaOfhl= ñhysh w;r ;sia fofkla muK nrm;< ;=jd, ,en frday,a .; l< y' miqj isoaêh ms<sn| fndoaOhkafya n,j;a b,a,Su mßÈ fldñIka iNdjla m;a fldg mÍlaIKhla l< kuq;a jerÈlrejka wêlrKhg bÈßm;a lsÍug fyda o~qjï §ug fyda mshjr fkd.;a w;r ñka miq fn!oaO fmryer meje;aùu imqrd ;ykï lrk ,§'

ì%;dkH md,kh hgf;a yqÿ fn!oaO ck;djg uqyqK mdkakg jk fujeks fYdapkSh ;;ajhka ms<sn| idlÉPd fldg ;SrKhlg t<öu msKsi yslalvqú Y%S iqux., udysñfhda" m%Odk fmf<a fn!oaO kdhlhka lsysm fofkl= fld<U urodfka ud,s.dlkafoa úfoHdaoh msßfjKg le|jQy' tys m%;sM,hla jYfhka 1884 ckjdß 28 Èk fn!oaOdrlaIl lñgqj kñka kj ixúOdkhla ìys úh'

1940 § m< jQ mru ú{dkd¾: ix.ufha j¾I chka;s iure l,dmfha fn!oaOdrlaIl iNdfõ iudrïNl /iaùfï jd¾:dfjka Wmqgd .;a fþofhka tu ixúOdkh ms<sn| wjfndaOhla ,efí' tkï"

fn!oaOhkag;a Tjqkaf.a wd.ug iy foafmd,j,g;a mdial= bßod wd.ñl flda,dy,fha § isÿ jQ w,dN ydksj,g jkaÈ ,nd .ekSu i|yd;a kS;Hdkql+, yd idOdrK fn!oaO whs;sjdislï jßka jr Èkd .ekSug iy jeä ÈhqKq lsÍug fn!oaOdrlaIl lñgqj kñka ixúOdkhla msysgqùug;a" my; kï i|yka uy;=ka tys idudðlhka jYfhka m;a lsÍug;a" iduðl;ajh mqÆ,a lsÍfï n,h o tu lñgqjg mejeÍug;a ;SrKh úh' ú,shï o wdfn%õ" fodka lfrd,sia" uqykaÈrï fodka fâúâ wNhr;ak" f–'mS' ch;s,l" f–' wd¾' o is,ajd" ihsuka fmf¾rd" Oï¾ .=Kj¾OkwdrÉÑ" ì' tÉ' l=f¾" fiaÈßia is,ajd" wd¾' ta ñ/kafvda" kS;S{ jd¾,ia wef,la iekav¾ o is,ajd" iS' mS' .=Kj¾Ok hk wh wdrïNl lñgq idudðlfhda jQy'

tjlg uÿrdisfha isá fykaß iaà,a ´,alÜ uy;d fuu lñgqjg we;=<;a lr .e”ug;a" lñgqfõ ksfhdað;hd f,i Tyq tx.,ka;hg heùug;a yslalvqfõ Y%S iqux., ysñhkaf.a Wmfoia mßÈ fodka lfrda,sia fyajdú;drK" tÉ' ta' m%kdkaÿ hk uy;ajrekaf.a fhdackd ia:sr;ajfhka ;SrKh úh' ta wkqj ;;a iNdfõ b,a,Su mßÈ uÿrdisfha isg ´,alÜ uy;d 1884 ckjdß 27 Èk ,xldjg meñK Bg miq Èk meje;a jQ lñgq /iaùug iyNd.S úh' tys § fn!oaOdrlaIl iNdfõ m%Odk iNdm;s jYfhka ta'mS' O¾u .=Kj¾Ok uqykaÈrï uy;d o iS' mS' .=Kj¾Ok uy;d f,alï jYfhka o tÉ' ta' m%kdkaÿ uy;d NdKavd.dßl jYfhka o iïu; jQy'

isxy, fn!oaOhkag isÿ jk widOdrKlï yd ;dvk mSvk iïnkaOfhka .; hq;= l%shdud¾. ms<sn| fuu lñgqj úiska ilia lrk ,o ixfoaYhla" 1884 uehs 17 Èk ´,alÜ ;=ud w; hg;a úð; Ndr uyf,alï v¾í idñ fj; hjk ,§' tu ixfoaYfhys my; i|yka lreKq ih m%Odk fldg m%Yak úi|d .e”u msKsi bÈßm;a lr we;'


^1& fldgfyafka l,flda,dy,hg iïnkaO jQjka wêlrKh fj; bÈßm;a lsÍu'

^2& wd.u ms<sn| wmlaImd;S m%;sm;a;shla wkq.ukh lsÍu fyda isxy, fn!oaOhskg ;ukaf.a wd.ñl whs;sjdislï yd jrm%ido iy;sl lsÍu'

^3& fjila fmdfyda Èk rcfha ksjdvq Èkhla f,i m%ldYhg m;a lsÍu'

^4& cd;sl yd wd.ñl ;+¾h NdKav Ndú;h ms<sn| mkjd ;snQ ;yxÑ bj;a lsÍu yd Ñrd;a ld,hl isg fn!oaOhska úiska mj;ajd f.k wd wd.ñl fmryer meje;aùug wjir .ekSu'

^5& fn!oaO .ïj,g fn!oaO újdy ,shd mÈxÑh i|yd fn!oaO frðiag%d¾jre;a m;a lsÍu'

^6& 1856 wxl 10 orK úydr foajd,.ï mk; yd .eg¿ úi|d .ekSu'